Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs)

ISSF is committed to supporting tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) in following scientific advice to protect and conserve tuna stocks, reduce bycatch, and improve the health of marine ecosystems.

RFMOs have the legal frameworks, geographic scope, and membership to facilitate positive change across global tuna fisheries.

Tuna are highly migratory, swimming through both international waters and waters belonging to many nations. To manage tuna stocks, countries sharing these resources joined together to create RFMOs.

Member nations of these RFMO governing bodies are responsible for setting catch limits, monitoring stock health, and regulating data collection, on-the-water monitoring, and methods to mitigate fishing’s ecosystem impacts, among other issues.

OVERVIEW OF TUNA RFMOS

There are five RFMOs worldwide that oversee tuna fisheries management in their respective ocean regions.

CCSBT – Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

Overview

Beginning in the 1980s, several nations (Australia, Japan and New Zealand) began to apply strict quotas to their fishing fleets to address the need to conserve and manage bluefin tuna stocks in the Southern Pacific. In 1994, this voluntary group was formalized, creating the CCBST. Since CCBST’s inception, the Republic of Korea, Indonesia, the Fishing Entity of Taiwan, Philippines, South Africa and the EU joined the RFMO as members or cooperating non-members.

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The CCSBT is responsible for setting fishing quotas for the Southern Pacific’s bluefin tuna stock, both in terms of total allowable catch and its allocation among the member states. In this role, the CCSBT is responsible for:

      • Being the coordination mechanism for member activities in the southern bluefin tuna fishery
      • Considering and administering regulatory measures
      • Conducting and coordinating a scientific research program to provide information in support of Commission objectives
      • Supporting and implementing fishery management
      • Fostering conservation activities for ecologically related species
      • Providing a forum for dialogue and discussion
      • Liaising with other RFMOs in areas of mutual interest

IATTC – Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

Overview

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is the oldest of the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs), created in 1949 by a convention between the United States and Costa Rica. In 1966, the IATTC initiated the world’s first tuna fishery management program, which limited the annual catch of yellowfin tuna.

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Responsibilities & Activities

The IATTC collects catch data on fish sizes, quantities and location of catch, as well as biological information on age, growth and reproduction. The IATTC’s staff uses this data to formulate models that estimate the impacts of fishing on the stock. As needed, the IATTC director formulates conservation recommendations to present to members for consideration. Members can accept the recommendations in full or with modifications, or reject them. Unanimous consent is required for approval.

Implementation is the responsibility of each member government; the IATTC is responsible for monitoring compliance.

ISSF Positions & Recommendations

ICCAT – International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas

Overview

The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), established in 1966, is open to any government that is a member of the United Nations or any specialized agency of the United Nations. Each member government can be represented by up to three commissioners.

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Responsibilities & Activities

The Commission is responsible for making scientifically based recommendations designed to maintain the populations of tunas and tuna-like species at levels of abundance that will permit maximum sustainable yields.

Each year, ICCAT meets to receive scientific advice from its Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (SCRS), which it uses to formulate management recommendations. SCRS first presents a report of stock status along with options for achieving certain goals. The appropriate panel may then make a recommendation to ICCAT for consideration. ICCAT can accept, reject or modify the recommendation. Management decisions are binding on the members, unless they object.

ISSF Positions & Recommendations

  • Analysis and reporting of FAD data
  • Continue to strengthen FAD management measures
  • Promote adoption of reference points and harvest control rules
  • Close vessel record for large-scale purse-seine vessels; consider a capacity transfer mechanism
  • Establish a full retention of tunas requirement
  • Make piloted non-compliance response scheme permanent
  • Strengthen purse seine observer coverage requirements; set requirement for longline observer coverage
  • Consider development of electronic monitoring procedures and standards
  • Strengthen compliance with transshipment resolution
  • Establish stronger shark and bird conservation measures
IOTC – Indian Ocean Tuna Commission

Overview

The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) was developed in 1993 and entered into force in 1996. The Secretariat was established in Seychelles in 1998. IOTC includes 31 members.

Unlike other tuna RFMOs, the IOTC was created within the framework of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization’s (FAO) Constitution. However, the Commission is fully autonomous, both functionally and financially, with the budget supported entirely by member contributions.

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Responsibilities & Activities

IOTC responsibilities include:

  • Ongoing review of conditions and trends of the stocks of tuna and tuna-like fish
  • Encouraging, recommending, and coordinating research and development activities
  • Adopting conservation and management measures to ensure conservation of the stocks
  • Reviewing the economic and social aspects of fisheries, bearing in mind the interests of developing coastal states

Members elect an executive secretary, who is responsible for the operation of the Secretariat. The Secretariat acts as technical facilitator of the IOTC process. Most scientific work is conducted by national scientists and reviewed by the IOTC Science Committee, which formulates advice and proposes conservation and management measures. The full commission must agree by at least a two-thirds majority.

ISSF Positions & Recommendations

  • Analysis and reporting of FAD data
  • Continue to strengthen FAD management measures
  • Promote adoption of reference points and harvest control rules
  • Address overcapacity
  • Improve transparency in the Compliance Committee report
  • Strengthen purse seine observer coverage requirements; set requirement for longline observer coverage
  • Strengthen transshipment compliance resolution
  • Establish stronger shark conservation measures
WCPFC – Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission

Overview

In 1979, the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) was established to collectively negotiate and harmonize Pacific island states’ control over tuna species within the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zones created by the United Nation’s Convention of the Law of the Sea.

From the FFA, the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) was established in 2004 to conserve and manage highly migratory fish stocks in the western and central Pacific Ocean.

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Responsibilities & Activities

The WCPFC has clear legal authority to deal with all aspects of conservation and management of fish stocks in the western and central Pacific Ocean. The WCPFC conducts scientific studies through its Scientific Committee (SC) and a Technical and Compliance Committee (TCC). Scientists of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community’s Oceanic Fisheries Program (OFP) are responsible for leading much of the scientific research utilized by the committees. The Scientific Committee is also required to work closely with the IATTC, particularly in areas of overlap, as well as with the International Scientific Committee (ISC).

Because of differences over how tunas should be managed in the northern portion of WCPFC’s jurisdiction, a Northern Committee was established to deal with management and conservation issues north of the 20° N.

ISSF Positions & Recommendations

  • Analysis and reporting of new FAD data
  • Continue to strengthen FAD management measures
  • Accelerate progress on development of reference points and harvest control rules
  • Institute reforms to address overcapacity
  • Improve compliance reporting transparency and develop a scheme of responses for noncompliance
  • Improve compliance with observer coverage standard for longline vessels
  • Adopt a binding measure for the full retention of tunas
  • Continue trials of electronic monitoring
  • Establish conservation measures for sharks, and implement steps to enforce shark finning measure

Largest Regional Tuna Catches

The five largest tuna catches in tonnes are Western Pacific Ocean skipjack, Western Pacific Ocean yellowfin, Indian Ocean skipjack, Indian Ocean yellowfin, and Eastern Pacific Ocean skipjack.

RFMO ADVOCACY PUBLICATIONS

Position Statements to RFMOs

Every year, ISSF produces Position Statements for RFMOs in advance of their policy-making meetings — outlining our recommended topics for discussion and priority actions for sustainable fisheries.

RFMO Best Practices Snapshots

As part of our policy and advocacy work, ISSF evaluates tuna RFMOs’ progress in implementing best-practice recommendations. Our “RFMO Best Practices Snapshots” (PDFs) cover compliance processes, IUU vessel listing, transshipment, and other fisheries management topics.

Conservation Measures to Support RFMOs

Several ISSF conservation measures were established specifically to support RFMOs and their regional tuna fleets in following best practices — specifically in vessel registration, listing, and authorization.

RFMO Infographics

In our infographics library, you’ll find original ISSF graphics on key RFMO topics — including comparisons of the tuna RFMOs’ progress on implementing ISSF sustainable-fishing recommendations.

Biodegradable FADs Guide

Four tuna RFMOs already require the fleets in their regions that fish with FADs to use only non-entangling FAD designs. Some RFMOs additionally encourage fleets to use biodegradable materials in FADs.

ISSF’s Guide to Non-Entangling & Biodegradable FADs is a resource for RFMOs and fishers transitioning to more sustainable FAD designs.

RFMO NEWS